Isaiah 62:1-12

62:1. Masoretic Text: For the sake of Zion I will not be silent, and for the sake of Jerusalem I will not rest until her righteousness goes forth like brightness and her deliverance will burn like a torch.

Septuagint: On account of Zion I will not be silent, and on account of Jerusalem I will not relax until my righteousness goes forth like light, but my deliverance will burn like a torch.

In the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll), the conjunction “and” follows Zion. According to this reading, “for the sake of Zion” is part of the previous sentence. The meaning would be that, for the sake of Zion, God would make righteousness and praise spring up before all the nations.


The meaning of this verse depends on the identity of the speaker. On the basis of verse 1 of chapter 61, the speaker could be the one whom YHWH has anointed. In that case, the prophet may be understood to express his determination not to be silent and not to slacken in declaring the good news about the restoration of Zion, continuing to do so until the divine promises are fulfilled. This would mean that the “righteousness” or the vindication of Zion as a city, with its inhabitants, enjoying divine favor would be as clearly in evidence as the brightness of day, and the reality of her deliverance from a devastated and depopulated state would burn as brightly as a torch at night.

As applying to the Messiah, Jesus the Anointed One, the words of verse 1 could indicate that he would not be silent or would not hold back from zealously seeking the interests of Zion, and he would not rest until the righteousness and deliverance of Zion had been effected. When viewed as relating to the heavenly Zion or Jerusalem, this could refer to the time when the “children” of the Jerusalem above are truly righteous by reason of their total liberation from the sinful state.

The Targum of Isaiah, however, represents YHWH as the speaker, indicating that he would give no rest to the people of the nations until he had brought about deliverance for Zion and that he would not grant quiet to the kingdoms until he had brought comfort to Jerusalem. Understanding YHWH to be the speaker may be preferable. The previous verse (61:11) mentioned YHWH as causing righteousness and praise to spring up. Therefore, one may conclude that the righteousness linked to Zion is the righteousness of which he is the source. This would agree with the Septuagint renderings “my righteousness” and “my deliverance” (not “her [Zion’s] righteousness” and “her deliverance”).

Silence can signify not speaking, being tolerant of certain attitudes, words, or deeds, and failing to act when there is an opportunity to do so. Rest can describe a relaxed state absent of any thought respecting accomplishing something essential or worthwhile.

For the sake of Zion, YHWH may be understood as not remaining “silent” but acting against those who had caused distress to his people. He would not be like a person who had taken his rest and was unconcerned about the suffering they had experienced and the oppressive actions of those who had afflicted them. The reference to the going forth of Jerusalem’s righteousness may apply to the execution of justice for the repentant people who had been subjected to hardships and oppression. YHWH would effect the liberation of his people from their oppressors, causing the righteousness, rightness, or justice expressed for Jerusalem (representing the people) to be clearly manifest as by a bright light. The deliverance of Jerusalem from a desolate and uninhabited state through the liberation of the repentant people from exile would be as unmistakably evident as a brightly burning torch.

The prophetic words may also apply to the “Jerusalem above,” which would not remain without “children,” uninhabited, as it were, by members of the human family. (Galatians 4:26, 27) YHWH did not remain silent and at rest respecting the captive condition of the human family, with all members thereof being in slavery to sin and alienated from him. At his appointed time, he acted, sending his Son, the promised Messiah or Christ, the man Jesus, to the world of mankind. Jesus Christ surrendered his life and, through his sacrificial death, made it possible for humans to be forgiven of their sins and to be reconciled to his Father. On this basis, those who have responded in faith have become “children” of the Jerusalem above, or citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem. By reason of these children, both righteousness and deliverance are linked to the Jerusalem above and are revealed as being bright and burning like a torch used for illumination.

62:2. Masoretic Text: And nations will see your righteousness, and all the kings your glory. And you will be called by a new name, which the mouth of YHWH will express (literally, “pierce”).

Septuagint: And nations will see your righteousness, and kings your glory. And one will call you by your new name, which the Lord will name.

In the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll), the verb for “call” is active third person plural (“they will call,” not “you will be called”).


When the Israelite exiles were able to return to Jerusalem and their own land, people of the various nations could see Jerusalem’s righteousness. This is because the restoration of the people, the city, and the land revealed that justice had been rendered for them and a righteous judgment had been executed against those who had devastated the city and the land and oppressed the survivors. Disgrace was then replaced with the glory or splendor of a restored condition that even kings could see. The changed status called for a new name that would reflect the transformation from a desolated and depopulated site to a rebuilt and flourishing metropolis. YHWH is identified as the bestower of the new name, for he is the one who had effected the liberation that resulted in the changed identity for Jerusalem.

In the case of the “Jerusalem above,” the ever-increasing number of children or citizens drawn from the human family started to be revealed in the first century CE. These children have been justified or reckoned as righteous on the basis of their faith in Jesus and his sacrificial death for them. Though not as yet enjoying the sinless state while on earth, the children of the heavenly Jerusalem conduct themselves as obedient children of God. Their exemplary conduct makes it possible for others to see their righteousness. Even kings or rulers have commended them, indicating that they are in possession of “glory” or dignity, which reflects the splendor of the heavenly Jerusalem that also deserves a new name because of having come to have many godly children or citizens.

62:3. Masoretic Text: And you will be a crown of beauty in the hand of YHWH and a turban of royalty in the palm of your God.

Septuagint: And you will be a crown of beauty in the hand of the Lord and a diadem of a kingdom in the hand of your God.

The Targum of Isaiah refers to a “crown of joy before YHWH” and a “diadem of praise.”

“Diadem of a kingdom” denotes a royal or kingly diadem.


Liberated from disgrace or humiliation, Jerusalem (as representing the people when in exile) would be revealed in a condition of beauty as a restored city and populated with Israelites who had been forgiven of their sins. As such, Jerusalem (as representing its inhabitants and the land) would, like a beautiful crown, be very precious to YHWH, be a credit to him, and be under his protective care. The manner in which YHWH provides and cares for those who are his own is comparable to their being like a beautiful crown and royal turban or diadem in his hand.

Likewise the “Jerusalem above” is precious to God, for her “children” or citizens are humans who have been forgiven of their sins and are reconciled to him. He guides, helps, and safeguards them, treating them like a beautiful crown and a royal turban in his hand.

62:4. Masoretic Text: No more will you be designated “Forsaken,” and your land will no more be designated “Desolate.” For you will be called “Hephzibah” [“My delight [is] in her”], and your land “Beulah” [“Owned” (as a wife)]. For YHWH delights in you, and your land will be owned [as a wife].

Septuagint: And no more will you be called “Forsaken,” and your land will not be called “Desolate.” For you will be called “My Desire,” and your land, “Inhabited” [land].

The Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll) begins the sentence with the conjunction “and.” This scroll, when referring to the calling, has the active third person plural “they will call” (not “you will be called”).

The name by which Zion or Jerusalem would be called, as contained in the Targum of Isaiah, means, “Those who do my [YHWH’s] pleasure are in her.”


When the conquering forces reduced Jerusalem to ruins and took the survivors into exile, the city was forsaken by God and desolate. According to the prophetic promise, this distressing situation would end. YHWH would find delight in Jerusalem and its repentant inhabitants, and the land to which the exiles returned would again be one of which he took ownership, comparable to the way a man was regarded as being the owner of his wife and responsible for her care and protection.

During the time the “Jerusalem above” had no earthly children or citizens, she appeared like a desolate city without any human population, a city that YHWH had forsaken. The increasing number of “children” from the first century CE onward transformed the heavenly city as one having God’s attentive care and in which he found delight. The “land” or realm with which the children of the Jerusalem above are identified is one belonging to YHWH. As a community of believers in Jesus as the Anointed One or the Christ and as the Son of God, they may be likened to YHWH’s land. According to the rendering of the Septuagint, the land would be inhabited. The realm associated with the Jerusalem above does have “children,” inhabitants, or citizens. (Galatians 4:26, 27, 31)

62:5. Masoretic Text: For [as] a young man comes to own a virgin [as a wife], your sons will come to own you. And [with] the joy of a bridegroom over a bride, your God will rejoice over you.

Septuagint: And like a young man lives [as a husband] together with a virgin [whom he married], so your sons will dwell with you. And it will be in the manner a bridegroom will rejoice over a bride, so the Lord will rejoice over you.

The Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll) contains a Hebrew word for “as,” whereas the Masoretic Text does not.


The relationship a young man comes to have to a wife of his own is likened to the close relationship the “sons” or citizens of Jerusalem would come to have to the city. As a restored city inhabited by those who had repented of their sins and had returned from exile, Jerusalem would become the object of rejoicing for YHWH. He would find pleasure in Jerusalem. His joy would be comparable to that of a bridegroom over his bride.

Especially great would be YHWH’s joy over the “Jerusalem above.” Its “sons” or citizens have been forgiven of their sins because of their faith in Jesus, the promised Messiah and Son of God, and his sacrificial death for them. These sons belong to the heavenly Jerusalem, and the heavenly Jerusalem belongs to them as does a virgin whom a young man marries.

Isaiah 62:6. Masoretic Text: Upon your walls, O Jerusalem, I have set watchmen. All the day and all the night, without interruption, they will not be silent. You, the ones putting YHWH in remembrance, [let there be] no rest to you, …

Septuagint: And upon your walls, O Jerusalem, I have set watchmen all the day and all the night, [watchman] who to the end will not be silent [about] mentioning the Lord.

The thought expressed in the Hebrew text continues in the next verse.

In the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll), the word tamíd, here rendered “without interruption,” is not included in the text.

The Targum of Isaiah contains an interpretation that departs significantly from the reading of the Hebrew text and that of the Septuagint. “Look! The righteous works of your fathers, O city of Jerusalem, are set in order and preserved before me, day and night continually without ceasing. The memorial of your good deeds is recounted before YHWH unceasingly.”


Among the Israelites, the prophets functioned as watchmen, warning them about the severe judgment to befall them if they persisted in following a wayward course and proclaiming good news about future blessings if the people repented and began to conduct themselves in harmony with God’s will. (Jeremiah 6:17; Ezekiel 3:17) The Scriptures reveal that YHWH is the one who called individuals to serve as his prophets. (Jeremiah 1:5; Ezekiel 2:1-5; Amos 7:14, 15) Accordingly, there is a biblical basis for considering the watchmen to be the prophets whom YHWH had appointed. Spoken of as at their post on the walls of Jerusalem, the watchmen appear to be represented as being able to see developments in the distance and thus to be in a position to alert the people about how they should respond.

In ancient walled cities, watchmen were on duty both day and night in the towers on the walls. Like watchmen, the prophets were always to be ready to fulfill their prophetic office whenever YHWH revealed his messages to them. At no time were they to be silent respecting the messages they were inspired to proclaim to the people. According to the rendering of the Septuagint, God had stationed the watchmen on the walls both day and night, and they were not to be silent about or refrain from mentioning him. This could include their calling YHWH’s requirements to the attention of the people.

As watchmen, the prophets were fully aware of YHWH’s earlier promises respecting Jerusalem and the Israelites. In their prayerful expressions, the prophets supplicated him to act on the promises by showing mercy to his people. (Compare Daniel 9:15-19; Amos 7:1-3; Habakkuk 3:2.) The Hebrew text may be understood to mean that the prophets, by their intercessory prayers, were to have no rest in putting YHWH in remembrance of his promises about Jerusalem and his people.

It is also possible, based on Isaiah 61:1, that the one who sets the watchmen on the walls of Jerusalem is the personage whom YHWH has anointed. This significance, however, is more suited for an application to Jesus, the Anointed One, and the “Jerusalem above.” Jesus, the Son of God, is in perfect oneness with his Father in everything. Among the children or the citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem, he did appoint men to function in the capacity of watchmen. These men needed to be alert to warn members of the community of believers respecting attitudes, words, and actions that could endanger their spiritual well-being, and they also had the responsibility to assist fellow believers to prove faithful to God and his Son. (Compare Ephesians 4:7-24; Hebrews 13:17.) In the community of believers, elders occupied a position as watchmen stationed on the walls of divine protection that surrounded the community of believers and were in a position, with divine assistance, to carry out their vital service.

62:7. Masoretic Text: and give no rest to him until he establishes [Jerusalem] and makes Jerusalem a praise in the earth.

Septuagint: For [there] is none like you, if he were to establish [Jerusalem] and make Jerusalem a [basis for] pride on the earth.

Before “and makes,” the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll) includes an additional verb (“prepares” [“prepares and establishes”]).

According to the interpretation in the Targum of Isaiah, the memorial or the remembrance of the good deeds of Jerusalem would not cease from before YHWH.


In calling YHWH to remembrance or supplicating him respecting Jerusalem, the “watchmen” or the prophets were admonished not to give him any rest. This indicates that they were not to let up in their appeals to him for mercy until such time as Jerusalem would be restored or firmly established as a rebuilt and repopulated city. With the transformation of a desolate site to a thriving metropolis, Jerusalem would become the object of praise. The remarkable transformation would not escape the notice of the people of other nations.

In the Septuagint, it appears that, in the case of God, there is none like him. The pronoun “you” is plural, and may be regarded as a plural of excellence. No one but God alone would be able to restore Jerusalem and transform it from a desolate site to such a lofty position that it would be a place about which to boast, a city in which one could rightly take pride.

In the case of the Jerusalem above, elders among her “children” or her citizens would not cease praying for continued increase in the number of children and the well-being of the entire community of persons who put their faith in God’s Son. When he returns in glory as the exalted King of kings and Lord of lords, the “Jerusalem above” will also have attained its most splendid condition. All her children will then come to be in the totally sinless state and enjoy the liberation of fully free children of God. The whole creation, in turn, will be set free from corruption and share in the marvelous freedom of these children. Thus the “Jerusalem above” would indeed become the object of “praise in all the earth.” (Romans 8:19-23; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-17; 2 Thessalonians 1:6-10)

62:8. Masoretic Text: YHWH has sworn by his right hand and by the arm of his strength, I will not give your grain again [as] food for your enemies, and sons of an alien will not drink your wine, for which you have toiled.

Septuagint: The Lord has sworn by his right hand and by the strength of his arm, I will not still give your grain and your food to your enemies, and sons of aliens will not still drink your wine, for which you have toiled.

In the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll), the word order for the phrase about the grain differs from the Masoretic Text, and the conjunction “and” does not precede “sons of an alien.”


YHWH’s adding his oath to his word serves to assure that his promises will not fail to be fulfilled. The swearing by his hand and by the “arm of his strength” could denote his swearing by his great might as represented by his hand and his arm. YHWH’s matchless power was irresistible, leaving not the slightest doubt respecting the trustworthiness of his promises. It is also possible to understand the swearing to be “with” his right hand and “with” the “arm of his strength.” In that case, the words would be representing YHWH as raising his extended strong arm and hand when swearing the oath.

YHWH’s oath-bound promise indicated that Jerusalem and the land of his people would no longer be subjected to enemy invasions and conquests. By his not allowing enemy forces to be victorious, he would not be giving the harvested grain of the land to the enemies of the Israelites nor the wine, the product of labor in viticulture, to triumphant aliens.

When applied to the “Jerusalem above” and her “children,” the loyal followers of Jesus Christ, the portrayal could be understood to refer to a condition of security. The “children” or citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem would be divinely safeguarded in order for them to come into possession of salvation or deliverance from sin in the absolute sense and enjoy a never-ending relationship with God and his Son as sinless persons. (1 Peter 1:3-9)

62:9. Masoretic Text: But those harvesting it [the grain] will eat it and praise YHWH. And those gathering it [the grapes for making wine] will drink it in the courtyards of my sanctuary.

Septuagint: But those gathering will eat them and praise the Lord, and those gathering will drink them in my holy courtyards.

In the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll), the word rendered “but” is followed by a term that has been rendered “rather” or “surely.” This scroll reads “name of YHWH” (instead of “YHWH”) and concludes with the additional phrase, “says your God.”


The Israelites who labored in the fields, cultivating and harvesting the crops, would be the ones to enjoy the fruit of their labors. They would not toil in vain on account of loss to invading armies but would personally benefit from their work and give praise to YHWH for the bountiful harvests. Secure from any threat of danger, the people would delight in festive occasions, including partaking of food and wine before YHWH in the courtyards of the sanctuary. (Deuteronomy 12:17, 18; 14:23)

If there is an application of the words to the citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem, the disciples of Jesus Christ may be understood to have the assurance that no enemy powers would be able to deprive them of the future blessings that God has purposed for them to experience. Their labors in carrying out his will as devoted followers of his Son would be richly rewarded. (Compare Hebrews 6:10.) Moreover, present blessings and joys would prompt Jesus’ disciples to praise his Father in expression of their deep gratitude for all that he has done for them.

62:10. Masoretic Text: Pass through, pass through the gates. Prepare the way for the people. Cast up, cast up the highway. Clear [it] of stones. Raise a signal over the peoples.

Septuagint: Pass through my gates and make a way for my people, and toss the stones out of the way. Raise a signal for the nations.

In the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll), the verb for “pass through” is not repeated. This scroll indicates the “stones” to be stones that cause stumbling. Instead of referring to the raising of a signal, it reads, “speak among the peoples.”

Although not mentioning Jerusalem, the Targum of Isaiah appears to refer to the gates as being those of the city and interprets the verse to apply to the activity of the prophets. “You prophets, pass to and fro through the gates; turn the heart of the people to the right way; proclaim good news and consolations to the righteous who have put away the thoughts of their desire, which is like a stone of stumbling. Lift up a sign over the peoples.”


Within the context of the portrayal of the restored and thriving Jerusalem, the words of this verse appear to relate to Jerusalem and the preparations to be undertaken to facilitate the arrival of many people even from distant lands. In their interpretive renderings, a number of translations specifically identify the gates as being those of Jerusalem. “People of Jerusalem, open your gates! Repair the road to the city and clear it of stones; raise a banner to help the nations find their way.” (CEV) “People of Jerusalem, go out of the city and build a road for your returning people! Prepare a highway; clear it of stones! Put up a signal so that the nations can know.” (GNT, Second Edition) “Go out through your gates, people of Jerusalem! Go out! Prepare the way for the rest of your people to return. Build up the road! Build it up! Remove the stones. Raise a banner over the city for the nations to see.” (NIRV)

The Septuagint rendering also points to Jerusalem. In the previous verse, the words “my holy courtyards” are found, meaning the courtyards of YHWH’s sanctuary or temple. Correspondingly, the reference to “my gates” would be to the gates of Jerusalem, for it was God’s city or his representative place of dwelling because his temple was located there. The Septuagint rendering indicates that the preparations are to be made for God’s people, whereas the raising of the signal is for the nations, with the apparent reason being that the hoisted signal or banner would serve as a focal point to guide people of the nations to Jerusalem. Their going to Jerusalem may be understood to denote their traveling there to worship YHWH at the temple.

Although no speaker is identified, the imperatives may be understood to be the word of YHWH that is conveyed through his prophet, calling for action by those who are addressed. Preparing the way would relate to doing the necessary work to facilitate travel on the road. The casting up of the highway could refer to leveling uneven places and smoothing out rough places. Workers needed to clear the road of all stones that could cause stumbling. While expressed in terms of manual labor to be performed on a road, the message seemingly serves to show that human action is needed to assist individuals to come to Jerusalem.

When applied to the “Jerusalem above,” the words may be regarded as pointing to the role of humans in making known to others how to become “children” or citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem. This would include letting them know about the need for repentance and calling attention to Jesus as the resurrected and highly exalted Son of God who laid down his life sacrificially so that persons who put their faith in him and his sacrificial death for them may be forgiven of their sins and come to be reconciled to God as beloved children. (Acts 2:38; 3:19-26; 5:30, 31; 10:34-43; 13:32-39; Romans 10:9, 10; 2 Corinthians 5:18-21; Philippians 2:5-11; 1 Thessalonians 1:8-10)

When the apostle Paul and other first-century Christians proclaimed Jesus Christ to people of the nations, they made him prominent like a raised signal. Those who responded became citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem, having benefited from the activity of Jesus’ followers who made it possible for them to see the course to take as if a road had been carefully prepared and all obstacles had been removed from the path. (Galatians 4:26)

62:11. Masoretic Text: Look! YHWH has made [it] to be heard to the end of the earth. Say to daughter Zion: “Look! Your deliverance is coming. Look! His reward [is] with him, and his work [is] before his face.”

Septuagint: For look, the Lord has made [it] to be heard to the farthest part of the earth. Say to the daughter of Zion: “Look! The Savior is coming to you, having his own reward and [his] work before his face.”

The opening words of the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll) may be rendered, “See YHWH! Let [it] be heard to the ends of the earth.” Additionally, the word for “work” is plural.

According to the Targum of Isaiah, the Savior had with him the reward of those who perform his word.


Represented as a woman, Zion or Jerusalem is called “daughter Zion.” The comforting message that YHWH made to be heard or known concerned her approaching deliverance. In an initial sense, this deliverance could refer to the restoration of the desolated and depopulated city after the Persian monarch Cyrus permitted the Israelite exiles to return to their land and to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem.

YHWH is the one who caused this to happen, and so he is the one with the “reward.” This reward may be understood to be the forgiveness he extended to his repentant people and the guidance and care he provided for them during their travel back to the land and then in the land itself. His “work” could relate to all that he would do for them, freeing them from their exile, opening up the way for them to return to their land, safeguarding them on their return journey, and blessing them in the land. This work is referred to as being before “his face,” meaning “before him.”

The exalted language in the next verse suggests a fulfillment that is far more impressive than the rebuilding of the temple and the rebuilding and repopulating of desolated Jerusalem. Therefore, one may regard the words to have an application to the heavenly Jerusalem. During their time on earth, the citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem often have been the objects of contempt and mistreatment among the nations. As the “Jerusalem above” is their mother, the things that befall them affect her. Therefore, for the heavenly Jerusalem to be delivered from reproach, her “children” need to be liberated from distress and also to be granted absolute freedom from sin. Upon his return in glory as the exalted King of kings and Lord of lords, Jesus Christ will carry out his Father’s judgment against those who have persisted in their hostility to the children of the Jerusalem above. Acting for his Father, Jesus would be doing his “work.” The reward of the children would be their rescue from the tribulation they had experienced and their transformation as sinless children of God with glorified bodies, to be permanently united with Jesus in the heavenly realm. At that time, “Jerusalem above” will be revealed as being in radiant splendor, without anything to mar her image. (Galatians 4:26-31; 1 Corinthians 15:51-54; 1 Thessalonians 2:13-16; 2 Thessalonians 1:6-10; compare Revelation 21:2, 10-27.)

62:12. Masoretic Text: And [individuals] will call them “holy people, redeemed ones of YHWH,” and you will be called, “Sought after, a city not forsaken.”

Septuagint: And he will call it a holy people, redeemed by the Lord, but you will be called “Sought-after city” and “Not forsaken.”

Instead of “you will be called,” the wording in the Dead Sea Scroll of Isaiah (the Great Isaiah Scroll) may be rendered “they will call you.”


In a limited way, the repentant Israelites who returned from exile came to be recognized as a “holy people” whose God YHWH had redeemed or rescued them, making it possible for them to return to their land and to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Compare Ezra 1:2-4) Non-Israelite peoples did go to Jerusalem to worship at the temple, and so Jerusalem could be said to have become a “sought-after” city, one that did not continue in a forsaken or desolate state.

According to the rendering of the Septuagint, God (the “Savior” mentioned in the previous verse) would call his repentant and forgiven people a “holy people,” whom he had redeemed. Others would call Jerusalem “Sought-after city” and “Not forsaken.”

The concluding words of this chapter appear to be particularly descriptive of the “Jerusalem above” and her “children.” Forgiven of their sins on the basis of their faith in Jesus and his sacrificial death for them, they are a “holy people” who strive to live a life of purity. (1 Peter 1:14-16; 2:9-12) Moreover, they have been redeemed or rescued from sin and the condemnation to which sin leads. God is the one who made it possible for the Jerusalem above to have many “children” at his appointed time, and thus she can be called a “city not forsaken.” The heavenly Jerusalem is also a “sought-after city.” Throughout the centuries from the time Jesus carried out his activity on earth, died sacrificially, was resurrected, and ascended to heaven, many of earth’s inhabitants from all nations have earnestly and eagerly continued to seek coming to be divinely recognized as citizens of the heavenly Jerusalem.